Quantitative Electroencephalograph (QEEG) is the measurement, using digital technology, of electrical patterns at the surface of the scalp which primarily reflect cortical activity or “brainwaves”. A multi-electrode recording of brain wave activity is recorded and converted into numbers by a computer. These numbers are then statistically analyzed and can be converted into a color map of brain functioning.
Our QEEG test results are interpreted by Dr. Jonathan E. Walker. Dr. Walker is a board certified neurologist and board certified electroencephalographer. He is a nationally recognized pioneer in the field of neurotherapy and a researcher in areas of learning difficulties. He is President of the American Board of QEEG Technology, and President of the Neurofeedback Division of AAPB. Dr. Walker also offers medical advice on medication and QEEG-guided training suggestions.
- Overview: What is QEEG-EEG?
- Article: Introduction to EEG and QEEG
by Frank H. Duffy, MD, Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory, Boston Children’s Hospital.
- Article: The Science of QEEQ
- Article: rEEG – The New Image of Diagnostics Accuracy
- Brain maps
T.O.V.A. – Test of Variables of Attention
The T.O.V.A. is a computerized continuous performance test. The T.O.V.A. is a standardized, objective, and well normed test that is used to assess an individual’s attention abilities and performance. The T.O.V.A. is a useful tool for parents, educators and clinicians. It can be a major component in evaluating how to address difficult issues such as ADHD, ADD, Anxiety Disorders, Depression, and Reactive Attachment Disorder.
Among other things, the T.O.V.A. can:
- Screen for disorders of attention
- Help in identifying disorders of attention
- As a measure of attention in neurological injuries and disorders
- As a tool to monitor the person’s response to medication over time
- As a way to titrate medication
T.O.V.A. is a non-language based assessment tool that is culturally sensitive. It is available in both visual and auditory versions, and requires no left-right discrimination or sequence. The T.O.V.A. is a diagnostic tool that provides highly accurate information that is useful in any multifaceted, multidisciplinary assessment of children, adolescents and adults.
is a non-language based computerized test that asks the subject to press a specially designed microswitch (rather than a mouse or keyboard) where the appropriate “target” or stimulus appears on the screen. The target is where a little square appears in the upper portion of another square. The non-target is where a little square is in the bottom portion of the bigger square. Every two seconds a stimuli will flash on the screen and the subject responds to the targets and non-targets. Error of omission (inattention), errors of commission (impulsively), response times, variability of response times, post-commission response time, anticipatory, and multiple response are all recorded for each 5-minute quarter and 10minute halfs, as well as overall total scores for each variable. Scores are compared to standardized norms and an interpretation of the data is reported in printable format.
is designed for use in the diagnosis and treatment of children and adults with auditory processing problems or attentional problems including ADHD. The auditory vision was developed to increase the diagnostic “hit rate” for individuals with ADD who perform within normal limits on the Visual Version (especially if high IQ and savvy computer game players). It was normed with 2550 children ages 6-19. It is recommended that clinicians continue to use the visual T.O.V.A. as the primary evaluation and treatment tool and supplement with the Auditory Version. Note that both tests were normed in mornings only and before the subject was fatigued. It is recommended that the two tests be administrated on two different mornings.
I.V.A. – Integrated Tests of Variables of Attention
All scores are presented both as raw and as quotient scores. The basis for statistical analysis is the same as that used for mot IQ tests; all quotient scores have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Applying these familiar interpretive guidelines makes it easy for you to interpret results.
I.V.A.’s scores are divided into four categories: Attention, Response Control, Attribute and Validity. The primary diagnostic scales are the Full Scale Response Control Quotient and Full Scale Attention Quotient scores.
These Response Control Quotient scores are derived from visual and auditory Prudence, Consistencyand Stamina scales.
- 1. Prudence is a measure of impulsivity and response inhibition as evidenced by three different types of errors of commission.
- 2. Consistency measures the general reliability and variability of response times and is used to help measure the ability to stay on task.
- 3. Stamina compares the mean reaction times of correct responses during the first 200 trials to the last 200 trials. This score is used to identify problems related to sustaining attention and effort over time.
The Full Scale Attention Quotient is derived from separate Auditory and Visual Attention Quotients.
The Attention Quotient scores are based on equal measures of visual and auditory Vigilance, Focusand Speed.
- 1. Vigilance is a measure of inattention as evidenced by two different types of errors of omission.
- 2. Focus reflects the total variability of mental processing speed for all correct responses.
- 3. Speed reflects the average reaction time for all correct responses throughout the test and helps identify attention processing problems related to slow discriminatory mental processing.
The Fine Motor Regulation scale provides additional information by recording off-task behaviors with the mouse, including multiple clicks, spontaneous clicks during instruction periods, anticipatory clicks and holding the mouse button down. In behavioral terms, the Fine Motor Regulation score quantifies fidgetiness and restlessness associated with small motor hyperactivity.
I.V.A.’s Attribute scores provide you with data regarding the client’s learning style. These scales are:
- Balance indicates whether the test taker processes information more quickly visually or aurally, or is equally quick in either modality.
- Readiness indicates whether the test taker processes information more quickly when the demand is quicker or when it is slower. This scale can provide a subtle measure of inattention when the test taker just “can’t quite keep up” with the demand.